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Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive spinal surgical procedure used to treat painful, progressive vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). A VCF is a fracture in the body of the vertebra, which causes it to collapse. In turn, this causes the spinal column above it to develop an abnormal forward curve. VCFs may be caused by osteoporosis (an age-related softening of the bones) or by the spread of tumor to the vertebral body.