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Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure used to correct problems with the bones (vertebrae) of the back (spine). The spine is stabilized by fusing together two or more vertebrae, using bone grafts and metal rods and screws.

This can be done through the back (posterior approach) or through the front (anterior approach), or sometimes both ways. The results of spinal fusion vary, but a good result is a decrease in pain. It is very rare for a patient to be completely pain-free after spinal fusion. Full recover can take more than a year.